- Мелкова Анна Петровна, учитель истории
- Чистова Евгения Александровна, учитель английского языка
- Систематизировать знания учащихся по разделу Древний Восток
- Расширить кругозор учащихся о древних цивилизациях Востока
- Способствовать развитию языковой коммуникации и применению английского
языка на практике
Сегодня наш урок истории необычный – интегрированный, это значит, что мы
используем умения и знания полученные на другом уроке, на уроке английского
Мы знаем, что более пяти тысяч лет назад появились государства. Люди стали
строить города. Сегодня на уроке, наша основная задача вспомнить особенности
государств Востока, которые мы изучали и определить, что из созданного на
Древнем Востоке сохранило свое значение до наших дней. Посмотрим на экран.
(Слайды с изобретениями – ученики определяют в какой стране это произошло)
- Алфавит и прозрачное стекло – Финикия.
- Календарь – Египет.
- Ветхий Завет – Палестина.
- Монета – Лидия.
- Цифры, учение Будды, сахар, ткани из хлопка, шахматы – Индия.
- Учение Конфуция, шелк, бумага, компас, чай – Китай.
Ребята перед Вами рабочие листы, в них есть вопросы по истории на русском и
английском языке, слушая устные ответы своих одноклассников, вы должны
внимательно их заполнить
The rich soil of the Nile River gave birth to Egypt, a civilization that
began over 5000 years ago and lasted more than 3000 years. The Nile River made
the soil around it productive, and Egypt grew wealthy. Each year The Nile River
burst its banks and spread water over land. Most Egyptians were farmers, who
worked for rich landowners or pharaohs. They were paid in crops, for example,
wheat for bread, beans, onions, melons, cucumbers. People also fished from the
Nile. The Egyptians fished from papyrus-reed boats using baskets, nets and lines
with hooks.The rulers of Ancient Egypt were called pharaohs. All the land in
Egypt belonged to pharaohs. People believed the pharaohs were the sons of Ra,
the Sun god. The Egyptians worshiped many gods and believed that when they died
, they went to the next world. Pharaohs built special tombs for themselves, for
example, the astonishing pyramids. Painters decorated royal tombs with pictures
of gods and the next world. Royal tombs were full of food, clothes, different
statues and jewelry.
The earliest pyramids had steps. People believed the dead king’s spirit
climbed the steps to join the Sun god at the top.
The Egyptians thought that if they save their bodies after death, they would
live forever. So they made “ mummies”. The organs were removed and placed in
jars. Then the body was wrapped in bandage and put into the coffin. The coffin
was richly decorated with hieroglyphs, or picture writing. Each object was shown
by its picture.
- The country of two rivers.
This country was situated between two rivers– the Euphrates and the
Tigris. That is why it was called the country of Two Rivers. Soil was very
rich in this country. The rivers gave life to this country. But floods were
very rough. At times the streams attacked and destroyed villages. People had
to build earth walls to save crops and fields. They also dug canals for
watering of the fields. The first states appeared there at the same time as
in the Nile Valley– more than 5000 years ago.
- The city of clay bricks.
Many settlements of the ancient farmers were turned into cities.
Those cities were usually situated on the riverbanks or near the channel. .
The biggest cities were Ur and Uruk. In southern part of Two Rivers there
were neither mountains nor forests and there was no building from stone and
wood. Palaces , temples, and houses were made of large clay bricks. Wood was
expensive, only rich people had wooden doors.Bricks were dried in the sun
because there was little fuel in this country.
- Towers from the earth to the sky.
The step tower was the temple of God, the patron of the city. In one
city it was the God of the sun Shamash, in the other one it was the god of
the moon Sin. People esteemed the god of water – Ea, because he watered
fields and gave people bread and life. People asked the goddess of fertility
for rich harvest and children.
Only priests could climb the top of the tower. Other people believed that
the priests were talking to gods there. The priests watched the movements of
the gods: the sun and the moon. They made the calendar, calculated the dates
of lunar eclipses and predicted people’s fortune.
- Letters on clay tablets.
Archeologists found different tablets with signs like wedges. These
signs were written with a sharp stick. Wedge-shaped signs were a special
writing in Two Rivers. It was called cuneiform.
Every sign was a drawing and meant the whole word: a star, a leg.
It was very difficult to learn to read because there were more than 100
signs. Pupils had to go to school of scribes every day. Boys copied ancient
myths, legends and laws.
Phoenicia lay on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean. The most famous
sailors and traders of the ancient world were born in Phoenicia. These people
were called Phoenicians. The cities of Phoenicia were linked by the sea, and
they traded in many things, for example, purple dyes, glass and ivory. Dyeing.
The Phoenicians were the only people who knew to dye clothes. It was very
beautiful and very expensive. Only rich people could wear purple-dyed cloth.
Glass. You know that ancient Egyptians made glass many years before the
Phoenicians did, but Egyptian glass was cloudy, while Phoenician glass was clear.
Their most famous trading post was Carthage on the north coast of Africa.
During its history , Phoenicia was conquered by several foreign empires, such as
Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians. They usually allowed the Phoenicians to
sell things.But in 332 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered Phoenicia, and Greek
people came to live there and brought their own culture.
More than 3000 years ago , the present-day country of Iran was home to
different tribes,such as the Medes and the Persians . For many years, the medes
ruled the area, but in 550 BCE Cyrus, the Persian king conquered the Medes.
Within 30 years Persia become the most powerful nation in the world. The Persian
Empire stretched from the borders of India to the Nile River in Egypt. There
were two capitals in the empire : Susa and Persepolis. These two cities were
linked by long Royal Road. When Alexander the Great conquered Persia in 331 BCE,
he burned Persepolis to the ground. But the ruins of the city, including the
royal palace, can still be seen today in southern Iran.
The Persians were skilled warriors, horse riders and craftworkers.Under
Darius I the empire was divided into provinces and they were linked by roads,
that is why people could buy and sell things easily.
India is surrounded by the Indian Ocean on three sides. The world’s highest
mountain range, the Himalaya , rises in the north. It iwas very hot in India.
When the wind was blowing, it brought heavy rains. So the biggest rivers , Indus
and Ganges ,spread their waters over land. People believed that bathing in their
waters washes away sins and cures illness.
People farmed in the rich soil and traded along rivers. They were very good
farmers. They grew rice, peas, melons, wheat, cotton and sugar cane. Fish were
caught in the river with fish hooks!
There lived a lot of animals in Indian jungles, such as lions, tigers,
leopards. Elephants were tamed in India.
The Indians worshiped many gods Cows were sacred and cannot be harmed. They
gave people milk and butter. The Indians also believed that animals and birds
talked to one another . A man after his death could be an animal.
The society was divided into castes. It was determined by birth and there was
no way to change it. High castes included priests, landowners and soldiers. So
called Untouchables had no caste and did the worst jobs.
China is situated in eastern Asia. China has thousands of rivers. The Yangtze
and the Yellow Rivers are the most important. Several states appeared along
these rivers. The rulers of the states were fighting among themselves but people
considered to be a united nation, because they had one and the same culture.
Confucius taught people such things as morality, kindness and education. The
family was the center of the society with the father at the head. Children
respected their parents and looked after them in their old age.
Chinese people believed in gods, spirits and dragons. But the most important
thing for them was the sky.
People in ancient China wrote on strips of bamboo wood. They wrote
hieroglyphs with a stick .
Natural barriers protected China on three sides: oceans to the east and south,
mountains and desert to the west. But, China’s northern border lay open to
attack from different tribes. So the great wall was built to defend China’s
northern border from attack. Hundreds of thousands of workers built the Great
Wall for years, and many of them died under the harsh conditions.
Сдайте свои рабочие листы. Мы прослушали все выступления и перед подведением
итогов урока, давайте немного отдохнем и проведем физкультминутку на английском
Hands on the head,
Hands on the hips,
Hands on the table,
Hands like this.
Hands on the shoulders,
Hands up and down,
Hands behind the head
And sit down!
С историей каких стран Древнего Востока вы познакомились? Давайте откроем
атлас и определим в каких частях света эти страны находились? На закрепление
изученного материала, выполним задания в рабочей тетради. № № 91, 93.
Д.З. нет. Оценки по англ. языку и истории получают…
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